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申辦社會安全碼 (Social Security Number, SSN) PDF 列印 E-mail
2008/05/11, 週日

社會安全碼 (Social Security Number, SSN)在美國的生活中扮演著重要的角色,除了繳稅之外,原因無他,就是因為可以讓你申請信用卡然後充分發揮終極購物的許多絕技。

基本上跟SSN相關的功用有:

1. 申請信用卡

2. 網路申辦手機(需有信用紀錄,而有信用紀錄的前提是要有SSN申請信用卡)

3. 申辦某些促銷網路專案(像是Comcast)

4.其他功能(退休福利、身障福利等等)

在過去,只要留學生到美國來就可以有SSN。因為學校會幫學生出證明,說明學生有「可能」會在未來當TA、RA等等學校工作,所以每個學生都有資格可以申請SSN。

取得申辦SSN的資格

自從紐約的911恐怖份子攻擊之後,申辦的過程越來越嚴苛,先是學校停止幫每一位學生辦理SSN,再來是申請SSN還需要有工作證明。

現在的美國,因為SSN主要是做來繳稅用的,所以如果妳學生(F1 visa)而不是TA、RA或者拿獎學金等工作證明,妳可能就沒有資格申請SSN。

社會安全碼卡 [1]

如果妳是訪問學者,通常學校都會讓妳申辦SSN,看看系上可不可以發給妳一張「預備工作」的證明,如果可以的話,你就可以拿著這張證明到社會安全局申請SSN。F1 學生也可以試著問問看可不可以拿證明,不過根據現在的規定,F1學生沒有工作要拿到學校的「預備工作」證明比較難。

另外,如果妳可以在學校去找臨時工作,像是圖書館、找老師看看可不可以給一個臨時的工作等等,有些學校招募心理或者治療實驗受測者時,有可能是給現金或是透過學校類似發薪水的方式給錢,因為有時候是需要扣稅的,你就可以拿「預備工作」的證明。

以上這些方法都是可以拿到「預備工作」的證明。

妳也可以直接硬闖社會安全局去申辦,有的同學遇到比較新手的服務人員,也有些同學到比較偏遠的社會安全局,最後都闖關成功,不過這個就是完全碰運氣了。

最後一定可以申請到SSN的方法就是等到妳申請OPT的時候,妳自動符合申請SSN的資格了。

申辦SSN的步驟

1. 準備申請SSN的原件文件:

妳可以利用在網路上查詢你需要哪些文件。如果妳不是美國公民、沒有綠卡而且是成人,妳需要下列的文件:

Original Social Security Number for a Noncitizen Adult

In general, only noncitizens who have permission to work from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) can apply for a Social Security number. If you do not have permission to work but need a Social Security number for other purposes, see “Work eligibility” for further information.

To apply for a Social Security number:

Anyone age 12 or older requesting an original Social Security number card must appear for an interview at a Social Security office.

Immigration status

To prove your U.S. immigration status, you must show us the current U.S. immigration document, I-94, Arrival/Departure Record, issued to you when you arrived in the United States. If you are an F-1 or M-1 student, you also must show us your I-20, Certificate of Eligibility for Nonimmigrant Student Status. If you are a J-1 or J-2 exchange visitor, you must show us your DS-2019, Certificate of Eligibility for Exchange Visitor Status.

Work eligibility

For most foreign workers, we only need to see an I-94, Arrival/Departure Record. Some foreign workers also must show their work permits from DHS (I-766 or I-688B).

Student: If you are an F-1 student authorized to work in curricular practical training, you must provide us with a Form I-20 with the employment page (page 3) completed and signed by a designated school official. We also need to see evidence of that employment, such as a recent pay slip or a letter from your employer. Your supervisor must sign and date the letter. The letter must describe:

  • Your job;
  • Your employment start date:
  • The number of hours you are, or will be, working; and
  • Your supervisor’s name and telephone number.

If you are an F-1 or M-1 student and are authorized to work off campus, you must provide us with the Employment Authorization Document you received from DHS.

If you are a J-1 student, you must provide a letter from your sponsor. The letter should be on sponsor letterhead with an original signature that authorizes your employment.

If you do not have permission to work

Lawfully admitted noncitizens can get many benefits and services without a Social Security number. You do not need a number to conduct business with a bank, register for school, apply for educational tests, obtain private health insurance, apply for school lunch programs or apply for subsidized housing. You cannot get a Social Security number for the sole purpose of obtaining a driver’s license.

Government benefits or services: If you do not have permission to work, you may apply for a Social Security number only if:

  • A federal law requires you to provide your Social Security number to get a particular benefit or service; or
  • A state or local law requires you to provide your Social Security number to get general assistance benefits that you already have qualified for.

If you need a number to meet these state or local requirements, you must bring us a letter from the government agency. It must be on letterhead stationery (no form letters or photocopies) and:

  • Specifically identify you as the applicant;
  • Cite the law requiring you to have a Social Security number;
  • Indicate that you meet all the agency’s requirements, except having the number; and
  • Contain an agency contact name and telephone number.

Taxes: If you need a number for tax purposes and you are not authorized to work in the United States, you can apply for an Individual Taxpayer Identification Number from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Visit IRS in person or call the IRS toll-free number, 1-800-TAXFORM (1-800-829-3676), and request Form W-7, Application For An Individual Taxpayer Identification Number.

If you are assigned a number for nonwork purposes, you cannot use it to work. If you use it to work, we will inform DHS.

Age

You must present your birth certificate if you have it or can easily obtain it. If not, we can consider other documents, such as a passport or a document issued by DHS, to prove your age.

Identity

Social Security will ask to see a current DHS document. Acceptable documents include:

  • Form I-551 (includes machine-readable immigrant visa with your unexpired foreign passport);
  • I-94 with your unexpired foreign passport; or
  • Work permit card from the Department of Homeland Security (I-766 or I-688B).

We may use one document for two purposes. For example, we may use a DHS work permit as proof of both work eligibility and identity. However, you must provide at least two separate documents.

All documents must be either originals or copies certified by the issuing agency. We cannot accept photocopies or notarized copies of documents.We also cannot accept a receipt showing you applied for the document.

We will mail your card as soon as we have all of your information and have verified your documents.

Keep your Social Security card in a safe place. It is an important document. Do not carry it with you.

2. 查找妳附近的社會安全局 (Social Security Office)

妳可以利用 Social Security Office Locator,只要輸入Zip code就能找到。
也可以打免費電話查詢:1-800-772-1213

要注意的是,有些社會安全局不申辦外國人的SSN,所以查詢好之後建議在打電話確認清楚。

3. 到 Office辦理

SS-5表格上面有許多細節的說明,建議你閱讀清楚。在填寫完SS-5表格後,建議妳親自去辦理,以免郵寄過程弄丟了自己重要的原件。

一般來說,兩週就可以收到妳的SSN卡。如果過時還沒拿到妳可以利用申辦時的收據打電話詢問。

參考資料

[1] http://people.howstuffworks.com/social-security-number2.htm



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